George Osborne has announced he is to levy a sugar tax on soft drinks which will raise £520m for primary school sports.
He also said fuel duty would be frozen for the sixth year running along with the levy on beer, cider and Scotch whisky.
On the sugar levy, Mr Osborne told MPs: “Doing the right thing for the next generation is what this government and this Budget is about, no matter how difficult and how controversial it is.
“You cannot have a long-term plan for the country unless you have a long-term plan for our children’s health care.”
He added: “I am not prepared to look back at my time here in this Parliament, doing this job and say to my children’s generation, ‘I’m sorry’.”
Mr Osborne also used his Budget speech to argue the UK will be “stronger, safer and better off” inside a reformed EU.
The Chancellor warned against putting at risk the hard work taken to make the economy strong again by quitting the bloc.
Mr Osborne is delivering his eighth Budget against a slowdown in the world economy that’s costing the Treasury billions of pounds in lost tax receipts and the upcoming EU referendum on 23 June.
As a result of the worsening economic forecast, he has to find further “austerity” savings if he is to meet his own target of clearing the deficit and balancing the nation’s books by the next General Election in 2020.
He told MPs: “Britain will be stronger, safer and better of inside a reformed European Union and I believe we should not put at risk all the hard work the British people have done to make our economy stronger again.”